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MAKING THE MODERN WORLD
Stories about the lives we've made

module:Geography of health

Patterns of disease

page:Glossary

A
antibiotics  
Drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other micro-organisms.
antibodies  
Proteins produced by the body as part of its defence against foreign bacteria or blood cells.
antigenic shift  
A shift or change in antigens allows them to escape recognition by the body's immune system.
antigens  
An antigen on a virus surface causes production of antibodies.
B
Bartlett model(s)  
This examines the relationship between the size of a population and the likelihood of an epidemic.
C
catalysers  
A device fitted to a car exhaust system which minimises the emission of harmful gases.
cholera  
A water-borne disease caused by a bacterium which leads to severe and often fatal diarrhoea.
chronological  
Something which occurs over time.
climatic change  
A permanent change in the climate over a period of several years - global warming is suggested to be an important cause.
contagious diffusion  
A type of expansion diffusion.The spread of something, for example a disease, by direct contact
D
degenerative disease(s)  
Diseases which occur with aging rather than by infection, for example cancer, heart and Alzheimer's diseases
diffusion  
The spread of a phenomenon, for example a disease or an idea.
E
endemic  
The permanent presence of a disease (usually an infection) within a population.
epidemic(s)  
An infection rate which has reached a certain predetermined level in relation to the total population.
epidemiologist(s)  
A scientist who studies epidemiology.
epidemiology  
The science of the distribution, occurrence and spread of disease.
expansion diffusion  
The spread of any phenomenon, for example, a disease, by outward movement from a focal point.
F
G
GM crops  
Crops which have had their genetic material modified, for example to improve resistance to pests and diseases.
H
Hamer Sopel models  
These examine the spread of disease in relation to population growth (by births and by in-migration).
hierarchic diffusion  
A type of expansion diffusion. The spread of something, for example a disease through a class or group
I
immunisation  
The production of artificial resistance to disease by a vaccination.
infection rate  
The number of infectious cases occuring divided by the length of time over which they happen.
infectious disease(s)  
A disease caused by a virus or parasite which can be transmitted to another host.
infectives  
Members of a population infected by a particular disease.
influenza  
A virus which can spread rapidly through different strains produced by antigenic shift.
influenza epidemic(s)  
A particular influenza infection rate in a population (for example, in the UK defined as 400 cases out of every 100,000 GP consultations per week).
influenza pandemic(s)  
A sizeable influenza infection rate worldwide. Twenty million died in the 1919 influenza pandemic.
influenza strain(s)  
Different types of the virus produced by changing antigenic shifts, making it highly infectious.
J
K
L
M
measles  
An acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash.
miasmas  
Poisonous gases and vapours thought to infect the air.
N
O
P
pandemic(s)  
A widespread disease outbreak affecting the population of an extensive area of the world.
patterns of infectious disease  
The changing distribution of infectious diseases;studied in epidemiology.
Q
R
recovereds  
Members of a population who have recovered from a particular disease and are therefore immune to it.
relocation diffusion  
The spread of any phenomenon, for example, a disease, by outward movement from a shifting focal point.
S
susceptibles  
Members of a population who are not immune to a particular infectious disease.
T
U
V
vaccination  
An injection of a weakened form of a disease or its antigens in order to give immunity to it.
virus  
A micro-organism that invades cells and uses cellular mechanisms to create multiple copies of itself.
W
wave of infection  
Graph plotting the course of an infectious disease outbreak or epidemic over time.
X
Y
Z

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